UV photograph of hands showing the fluorescent serum on the wrist wound (left semi-ring in correspondence of the upper blood flow) (V. Miller).

No body image formed under the blood stains (A53) showing that the blood already transposed in the cloth prevented the image formation. No smears are evident in the blood traces (A72) that are typical of a manumission of a corpse.

Red particles

A class of red particles test positively for the presence of protein, hemin, bilirubin, and albumin; give positive hemochromagen and cyanmethemoglobin responses; after chemical generation they display the characteristic fluorescence of porphyrins (A60): they are blood. The chemical and physical parameters of the blood stains are different than mineral compositions proposed by artists (B49).

Types of blood
There is a first type of blood stain that corresponds to the blood exudated from clotted wounds and transferred to the cloth by being in contact with a wounded human body such as scourging and crown of thorns wounds or wrists wounds (B46) and there is a second type of blood stain that corresponds to the blood that directly flowed on the Shroud such as feet wounds or side wound with blood separation in a dense and a serous portion (B47).
The UV photographs show a distinct serum clot retraction ring (B48). The blood clots were transposed to the linen fabric during fibrinolysis that could cause clots to liquefy sufficiently for the blood to transfer to the cloth as a serous-laden liquid rather than a moist jelly-like substance (B55).
The blood is not denatured therefore both the image-formation mechanism and the 1532 fire did not involve processes that would denature the blood (A61).
The maintenance of the red bright color of the TS blood with time was observed, but the explanation of why the color is so red is not definitive (B52) (for example both UV rays and Saponaria Officinalis makes red the coagulated blood).

Capillary imbibition
The blood or serum went onto the cloth surface as a liquid (A64); they have migrated by capillary imbibitions from the "warp side" to the "weft side" of the Shroud and they filled the mesh apertures (A59). The blood stains are marked on the reverse side, although they are fainter than on the front side of Shroud (A67) and maller in size when compared with the corresponding traces on the frontal side, showing that blood was transposed onto the cloth touching the frontal side of the Shroud (B51). The bloodstains observable on the back surface have been described as "imbibed flows" throughout the cloth (B50). Body fluids other than blood or serum did not percolate into the cloth (A58).

Particular bloodstains
There are blood traces not consistent with scalp hair traces soaked with blood in correspondence to the image of the hair on the front side (B53) and some blood stains are comparable to transfers that would be expected if the arms were posed in non horizontal position (B56)