manikin1.jpg
Numerical simulation of the Shroud enveloping a stiff corpse based on the 3-D information (G. Fanti).

Generalities
The body image is very faint (A31), it does not have well defined contours (A34), it shows no evidence of image saturation (A32), it has a resolution of 4,9±0,5 mm at the 5% MTF value when the resolution of the bloodstains is at least ten times better (A33). The body image shows non-directional light sources in the sense that there are no shadows, cast shadows, highlights, and reflected lights in or on the body image (B30).
The image-forming mechanism operated regardless of different body structures such as skin, hair, beard and perhaps nail (A45). In reference to a cloth wrapping a body, there is no evidence of body image formation at the sides of the body on both the frontal and dorsal Shroud images (B33).
A body image is visible in areas of body-sheet non-contact zones, such as those between nose and cheek (B45).

Luminance levels
In the positive photograph, the luminance levels of the front and back body images (face excluded) are compatible within an uncertainty of 5%; the front image is generally darker than the dorsal one (A42).
The luminance level of the head image in the positive photograph is 10% and more ldarker than that of the whole body image (A44). The body image, dorsal side, does not penetrate the cloth any more deeply than the ventral image(A43).
In correspondence of image sections of cylindrical elements such as legs, the luminance levels variation approximates a sinusoidal law (B32).

Negative Image
The body image has the normal tones of light and dark reversed with respect to a photograph, such that parts nearer to the cloth are darker (B27). The absence of saturation implies that the image formation did not go to completion (B31). The Fourier transform of the body image shows a nearly continuous spectrum in correspondence to the spatial frequencies up to 100 [1/m] (B34) thus indicating the absence of brush strokes (B35).

3-D features
The luminance distribution of both the frontal and dorsal images can be correlated with a highly directional mapping function (B29) and it has been correlated to the clearances between a three-dimensional surface of the body and a covering cloth (B28)

Image details
A non-image area is detectable among the fingers (A35) and there is a darker spot in correspondence of the palm of the hand (A36). The fingers in the image appear to be longer than average, but they are still within the normal range (B37). The thermograms did not show the lower jaw of the image even if it is visible (A46). There is no evidence of image between the tops of the front and dorsal heads (A41).
The hair on the frontal image is soft and not matted as would be expected if it were soaked with a liquid (B23) and it show high luminance levels relatively to the face: for example the left hair is darker than the cheeks (A40).

Double superficiality
The frontal image, at least in correspondence to the head, is doubly superficial (B36). A body image color is visible on the back surface of the cloth in the same position of some anatomic details as for the body image of the frontal surface of the Shroud. The hair appears more easily to the naked eye but also other details of face and perhaps hands appear by image enhancement on the back surface (A47), but no image color is visible on the back surface in correspondence of the dorsal image (A48). The nose image on the back surface presents the same extension of both nostrils, unlike the frontal, in which the right nostril is less evident (A49)

Grooves and hills effect
Image details corresponding to Face grooves are more faintly represented (e.g. eye sockets and skin around the nose), convex “hills” on the Face (e.g. eyeballs and nose tip) however are more clearly represented (A50). The most of the prominent parts (nose, beard, sole, calf) of the body image in the vertical direction, supposing a supine body, are marked (B22).

Measurements
Although anatomical details are generally in close agreement with standard human-body measurements, some measurements made on the Shroud image, such as hands, calves and torso, do not agree with anthropological standards (A51). The frontal body image (195 cm long) is compatible, within an uncertainty of +/-2 cm, with the dorsal image (202 m long) if it is supposed that the Shroud enveloped a corpse having the head tilted forward, the knees partially bent and the feet stretched forwards and downwards (B25).
Image distortions of hands, calves and torso on the TS of are very close to those obtained by a man enveloped on a sheet (B38). The very high rigidity of the body is evident on the back image especially in correspondence of the buttocks: the anatomical contours of the back image demonstrate minimal surface flattening (B39).

Other
The body image shows no evidences of putrefaction signs and there is no evidence for tissue breakdown (A52)