Craig1l.jpg
Negative of the Craig's result after a color change made to better compare this image with that of the Turin Shroud Face. At a macroscopic level the similarities are impressive (image processed by G. Fanti). -

Title of the hypothesis: THE BODY IMAGE IS A PAINTING MADE BY THE "DUST DRAWING" TECHNIQUE
- Author's name(s) who first proposed the hypothesis coupled with the researcher's name who presents it

E. Craig
G. Fanti presents this hypothsis but every improvement is welcome.
- Detailed technique description for the
formation of the body image and
- Detailed technique description for the formation of the blood stains

From E. Craig: “The image I used for reference was published in The National Geographic Magazine in June, 1980, on page 753. The image in the magazine was shown as a negative and it was only 6.5 X 8 inches. So when I re-drew it, I had to mentally reverse it to a “positive” image and I chose to enlarge it so that it was closer to life-sized. .... I first dipped a dry brush into a mixture of dry iron oxide and dry gelatin and drew the “new” face on a piece of newsprint. Once the dust drawing was complete, I placed a piece of linen on my kitchen counter. I laid the newsprint drawing on the counter nearby and selected sites on my dust drawing that corresponded with the "blood sites" on the Shroud image (using the same National Geographic image as reference). At these sites I dribbled diluted chicken blood onto my original newsprint image with a paintbrush. Then, while the blood was still wet, I gently lifted the newsprint drawing, turned it over, and laid it face-down on top of the clean, flat linen and allowed the blood to soak into the linen. This was to ensure that the blood contacted the linen before any of the "dust". Thus, any dust was blocked from direct contact with the linen. Once the blood was dry, I began to rub the newsprint down upon the linen with the heel of my hand. ". After going over the whole thing with my hand, I went over it again at a 90 degree angle rubbing down with my thumbnail. The harsh lines...which most assume to be "fold lines" on the Shroud cloth ...were drawn on the newsprint as part of my original dust drawing. The cloth used for my experimental copy was not stretched, rolled or folded. “
It is Craig’s opinion that the image is man-made and any attempt to duplicate the image is only limited by one illustrator’s ability to copy the artwork of the original illustrator. Her hypothesis is that the “dust drawing” technique can be utilized to produce an image which has all of the physical characteristics of the image on the Shroud cloth.
This is a preliminary report of ongoing experimental studies regarding different combinations of dusts which Craig has shared with G. Fanti in her attempt to duplicate the color and fiber-coating patterns reportedly seen in Shroud image areas.
- Main bibliographic references:
- CRAIG E. A., BRESEE R. R.: “ Image Formation and the Shroud of Turin”, Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, Volume 38, No. 1, pp. 59-67, 1994.
- www.shroud.com/pdfs/craig.pdf

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COMMENTS
This is perhaps the painting technique that best reproduces the body image (only face for the moment) from a macroscopic point of view but it still lacks many characteristics of the Shroud image from a microscopic point of view.
For example, in reference to the photographs shown below, the colored linen fibers resulting from the Craig's painting are covered with the dust used and therefore the color is discontinuous when the Shroud image fibers have a color uniformly distributed along their surface.

craigfiber.jpgimagefiber.jpg
On the left: image fibers colored by Craig; on the right image fibers from the Shroud (SURP-1EB sticky tape) (photo G. Fanti).

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FACTS IN DISAGREEMENT WITH THE SHROUD
In reference to the List of Facts the following facts are not in agreement with the technique proposed by E. Craig.

CHEMICAL-PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF THE LINEN YARNS AND FIBERS
Body image color resides on the thin impurity layer of outer surfaces of the fibers (A4); the color of the image-areas has a discontinuous distribution along the yarn of the cloth: striations are evident (A5); the image is a result of concentrations of yellow to light brown fibers (A11) and there is no cementation signs among the image fibers (A17).
Reflectance spectra, chemical tests, laser-microprobe Raman spectra, pyrolysis mass spectrometry, and x-ray fluorescence all show that the image is not painted with any of the expected, historically-documented pigments (B9). Chemical tests showed that there is no protein painting medium or protein-containing coating in image areas. (B10). There are no pigments on the body image in a sufficient quantity to explain the presence of an image (B13).

BODY IMAGE
Although anatomical details are generally in close agreement with standard human-body measurements, some measurements made on the Shroud image, such as hands, calves and torso, do not agree with anthropological standards (A51). When their lengths are measured, the dorsal image is longer than the ventral image in a manner similar to the imprint on a sheet of a man having the head tilted forwards, his knees slightly bent, and his feet extended (B24).
The frontal image, at least in correspondence to the head, is doubly superficial (B36).
Image distortions of hands, calves and torso on the TS of are very close to those obtained by a man enveloped on a sheet (B38). The very high rigidity of the body is evident on the back image especially in correspondence of the buttocks: the anatomical contours of the back image demonstrate minimal surface flattening (B39).

BLOOD AND BODY FLUIDS
Some human blood stains appear on and outside of the body image (left elbow) (A68); the UV photographs of single blood stains show a distinct serum clot retraction ring (B48); the blood clots were transposed to the linen fabric during fibrinolysis (B55).

OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CLOTH
If a fiber is colored, it is uniformly colored around its cylindrical surface (B15).

OTHER
Earthy material (limestone composed of aragonite with strontium and iron) was found on the feet of TS Man (A79), but there is no observed microscopic, chemical, or spectroscopic evidence for the presence of any dry powder responsible for the body image on the TS (A82).