Unquestionable observations: chemical-physical characteristic of the linen yarns and fibers:

A001) The yarn used to weave the Shroud was spun with a "Z twist." (Raes 1974, Vial 1989, Curto 1976, Pastore 1988).
A002) Direct microscopy showed that the image color resides only on the topmost fibers at the highest parts of the weave (Evans 1978; Pellicori 1981).
A003) Phase-contrast photomicrographs show that there is a very thin coating on the outside of all superficial linen fibers on Shroud samples named "Ghost"; "Ghosts" are colored (carbohydrate) impurity layers pulled from a linen fiber by the adhesive of the sampling tape and they were found on background, light-scorch and image sticky tapes (Zugibe and Rogers 1978, Rogers 2002).
A004) Body image color resides on the thin impurity layer of outer surfaces of the fibers (Zugibe 1978, Heller 1981; Rogers 2002).
A005) According to M. Evans (1978) photomicrographs (ME-02, -08, -14, -16, -18, -20, -25, -29), the color of the image-areas has a discontinuous distribution along the yarn of the cloth: striations are evident. The image has a distinct preference for running along the individual fibers making up a yarn, coloring some but not others (Pellicori 1981, Schneider 2005). Fibers further from a flat surface, tangent to the fabric, are less colored, but a color concentration can be detected in correspondence to crevices where two or three yarns cross each other (ME-20) (Fanti 2005).
A006) The cellulose of the medullas of the 10-20-micrometer-diameter fibers in image areas is colorless because the colored layer on image fibers can be stripped off, leaving colorless linen fibers (Heller 1981; Rogers 2002).
A007) The colored layers in the adhesive have the same chemical properties as the image color on fibers (Rogers 2005).
A008) The crystal structure of the cellulose of image fibers has not visibly changed with respect to that of the non- image fibers (scorches have) (Rogers 2002; Feller 1994).
A009) The colored coating cannot be dissolved, bleached, or changed by standard chemical agents, but it can be decolorized by reduction with diimide (hydrazine/hydrogen peroxide in boiling pyridine); the residue from reduction is colorless linen fibers (Heller 1981, Rogers 2003).
A010) The pyrolysis/ms data showed the presence of polysaccharides of lower stability than cellulose on the surface of linen fibers from the TS [Shroud of Turin] (Rogers 2004).
A011) Photomicrographs and samples show that the image is a result of concentrations of yellow to light brown fibers (Pellicori 1981; Jumper 1984; McCrone and Skirius 1980; Schwalbe 1982; Rogers 2002).
A012) The image-formation mechanism did not char the blood (Rogers 1978-1981).
A013) The image formed at a relatively low temperature (Rogers 1978-1981).
A014) The 1978 quantitative x-ray-fluorescence-spectrometry analysis detected significant uniform amounts of calcium and strontium concentrations (a normal impurity in calcium minerals), and iron in the Shroud (Morris 1980, Rogers 2003, Adler 1998).
A015) Microchemical tests with iodine and pyrolysis/mass spectrometry detected the presence of starch impurities on the surfaces of linen fibers from the TS [Shroud of Turin] (Rogers 2002, 2004).
A016) The lignin that can be seen at the wall thickenings and/or growth nodes of the linen fibers of the TS [Shroud of Turin] does not give the standard test for vanillin (Rogers 2002, 2005).
A017) There is no cementation signs among the image fibers (Pellicori 1981).
A018) No painting pigments or media scorched in image areas, or were rendered water soluble at the time of the AD 1532 fire (Rogers 1977-1978-1981/2002; Schwalbe 1982).
A019) No fluorescent pyrolysis products were found in image areas (Rogers 2002).
A020) After weaving, the TS [Shroud of Turin] yarns were washed with a very mild, natural material because of the presence of flax wax on the fibers and the specular reflectance of the non-image fibers (Rogers 2003).