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Shroud of Turin
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St. Louis Conference 2014
Ohio Conference 2008
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Shroud Science Group
, a group of about 100 scientists, historians and researchers. If you are interested in joining the group,
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Shroud of Turin Web Sites
These web sites are maintained by members of the Shroud Science Group:
The Shroud of Turin
Shroud of Turin Story
Shroud of Turin Education Project
(in memory of Father Kim Dreisbach)
(of G. Fanti)
Collegamento pro Sindone
The Shroud of Turin for Scandinavian Languages
Council for Study of the Shroud of Turin
Crucifixion and Shroud Studies
Shroud of Turin: The Truth
Light of the Shroud
Unquestionable observations: body image:
A031) The body image is very faint : reflected optical densities are typically less than 0.1 in the visible range (Jumper 1984; Schwalbe 1981).
A032) The body image shows no evidence of image saturation (Jackson 1977, 1982, 1984).
A033) The body image has a resolution of 4,9±0,5 mm at the 5% MTF value (for example the lips); the resolution of the bloodstains is at least ten times better (for example the scratches in the scourge wounds) (Jackson 1982, 1984; Moran 2002; Rogers 2003, Fanti 2004-MTF, Fanti Sept. 2005-MTF).
A034) The body image does not have well defined contours (Jackson 1982, 1984; Moran 2002).
A035) A non-image area is detectable among the fingers of the TS [Shroud of Turin] image (Fanti 2004).
A036) There is a darker spot in correspondence of the palm of the Man’s hand near the index finger (Accetta 2001, Antonacci 2000).
A037) The thumbs are not visible in the hand image (Bucklin 1982, Ricci 1989).
A038) In correspondence to the middle of the nose there is a swelling (Fanti 2004).
A039) Detailed photographs and microscopic studies of the cloth in the nose image area show scratches and dirt (Bucklin 1982).
A040) The hair on the frontal image show high luminance levels relatively to the face: for example the left hair is darker than the cheeks (Fanti 2004).
A041) There is no evidence of image between the tops of the front and dorsal heads (Adler 1999; Moran 2002).
A042) In the positive photograph of Durante (2000), the luminance levels of the front and back body images (face excluded) are compatible within an uncertainty of 5%; the front image is generally darker than the dorsal one (Moran 2002, Fanti 2005).
A043) The image of the dorsal side of the body does not penetrate the cloth any more deeply than the image of the ventral side of the body ((Jumper 1984, Rogers 2005).
A044) The luminance level of the head image in the positive photograph of Durante (2000) is 10% and more lower (darker) than that of the whole body image (Moran 2002).
A045) The image-forming mechanism operated regardless of different body structures such as skin, hair, beard and perhaps nail (Antonacci 2000).
A046) The thermograms did not show the lower jaw of the image (Rogers 2003), even if it is visible (Whanger 1998).
A047) A body image color is visible on the back surface of the cloth in the same position of some anatomic details as for the body image of the frontal surface of the TS [Shroud of Turin]. The hair appears more easily to the naked eye (Ghiberti 2002) but also other details of face and perhaps hands appear by image enhancement (Maggiolo 2002/03, Fanti and Maggiolo 2004).
A048) No image color is visible on the back surface in correspondence of the dorsal image (Ghiberti 2002; Maggiolo 2002/03, Fanti and Maggiolo 2004).
A049) The nose image on the back surface of the TS [Shroud of Turin] presents the same extension of both nostrils, unlike the frontal, in which the right nostril is less evident (Fanti and Maggiolo 2004).
A050) Image details corresponding to Face grooves are more faintly represented (e.g. eye sockets and skin around the nose), convex "hills" on the Face (e.g. eyeballs and nose tip ) however are more clearly represented (Scheuermann 1983).
A051) Although anatomical details are generally in close agreement with standard human-body measurements, some measurements made on the Shroud image, such as hands, calves and torso, do not agree with anthropological standards (Ercoline 1982; Simionato 1998/99; Fanti and Faraon 2000; Fanti and Marinelli 2001).
A052) The body image shows no evidences of putrefaction signs, in particular around the lips. There is no evidence for tissue breakdown (formation of liquid decomposition products of a body) (Bucklin 1982; Moran 2002).
A053) No image formed under the blood stains (Heller 1981; Schwalbe 1982; Brillante 2002).
A054) The front image shows hair that goes down to the shoulders (Fanti and Faraon 2000).
A055) The image of the TS [Shroud of Turin] Man, appears as if he was scourged (Bucklin 1982, Ricci 1989).
A056) The image of the TS [Shroud of Turin] Man, appears as if he was crucified: it appears with nail holes and corresponding blood at the wrists and top of the feet (Bucklin 1982, Ricci 1989).
A057) The image of the TS [Shroud of Turin] Man demonstrates no evidence of maiming or disfigurement (Bucklin 1982, Ricci 1989).
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