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Shroud of Turin
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St. Louis Conference 2014
Ohio Conference 2008
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Shroud of Turin Web Sites
These web sites are maintained by members of the Shroud Science Group:
The Shroud of Turin
Shroud of Turin Story
Shroud of Turin Education Project
(in memory of Father Kim Dreisbach)
(of G. Fanti)
Collegamento pro Sindone
The Shroud of Turin for Scandinavian Languages
Council for Study of the Shroud of Turin
Crucifixion and Shroud Studies
Shroud of Turin: The Truth
Light of the Shroud
Unquestionable observations: blood and body fluids:
A058) Body fluids other blood or serum than did not percolate into the cloth (Rogers 2003).
A059) The blood or serum have migrated by capillary imbibitions from the "warp side" to the "weft side" of the TS [Shroud of Turin] and, depending on their abundance and consistency, they filled the mesh apertures (Fanti 2004).
A060) There is a class of particles on the TS [Shroud of Turin] ranging in color from red to orange that test as blood derived residues. They test positively for the presence of protein, hemin, bilirubin, and albumin; give positive hemochromagen and cyanmethemoglobin responses; after chemical generation display the characteristic fluorescence of porphyrins (Adler 1999).
A061) The blood on the TS [Shroud of Turin] is not denatured. Therefore both the image-formation mechanism and the 1532 fire did not involve processes that would denature the blood (Rogers 2004).
A062) The blood from the large flow on the back darkened (scorched) at an adjoining scorch (Rogers 1978).
A063) The red flecks McCrone (1980, 2000) claimed were hematite had an organic matrix (Heller 1983, Rogers 2004).
A064) Microscopic observation of blood flecks of sample 3EB showed specular reflection: the blood went onto the surface as a liquid (Rogers 1978).
A065) Blood spots are much more visible on the TS [Shroud of Turin] by transmitted light than by reflected light; this implies that the blood saturated the cloth and it is not a superficial image as the body imager is (Rogers 1978).
A066) Many blood traces visible on the frontal image are also visible on the back image in the same position (Fanti 2003).
A067) Blood stains are well marked on the reverse side , although they are fainter than on the front side of TS [Shroud of Turin] (Fanti 2003, Whanger 2004).
A068) Some human blood stains appear on and outside of the body image (left elbow) (Heller 1980, 1981, Baima Bollone 1981, 1982, Jackson, 1987, Carreira, 1998).
A069) In correspondence to the knees on the dorsal image, there are scourge marks in correspondence to lower luminance levels of the body image (Fanti 2003).
A070) The blood on the TS [Shroud of Turin] does not fluoresce in ultraviolet illumination (no porphyria and no fluorescent pigments) (Rogers 1978).
A071) The blood on the TS [Shroud of Turin] can be removed with a proteolytic enzyme (Adler 1999).
A072) No smears are evident in the blood traces (Bucklin 1982, Ricci 1989, Antonacci 2000).
A073) No potassium signals could be found in any of the blood area data (Morris 1980).
A074) In UV fluorescence the scourge marks appear with dumbbell shapes (Bucklin 1982, Ricci 1989).
A075) In UV fluorescence the scourges are resolved into fine scratches: three, and in some cases four, parallel scratches can be distinguished (Bucklin 1982, Ricci 1989).
A076) The blood stain corresponding to the right side of the chest 6th ribs shows separation of blood from a clearer liquid material (Bucklin 1982).
A077) The DNA found in blood spots is badly degraded. (Rogers 2005).
A078) No broken fibers were found under the blood clots (N. Svensson 2005).
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