chemical-physical characteristic of the linen yarns and fibers:

B001) The TS [Shroud of Turin] samples examined have herringbone 3:1 twill weave (Vial 1989).
B002) Traditional dimensions of the TS [Shroud of Turin] of 436 x 110 cm (Baima Bollone 1978) are changed after 2002 "restoration": one side (the lower considering horizontal the body image, with the frontal side on the left) measured 437.7 cm in 2000 and 441.5 cm in 2002; the opposite side measured 434.5 in 2000 and 442.5 in 2002; its height of 112.5 and 113 cm respectively on the left and on the right in 2000 but 113.0 and 113.7 cm in 2002 (Ghiberti 2002). A measurement made in 1868 by Gastaldi (Baima Bollone 1978) reports the following dimensions: 410 x 140 cm (Scarpelli 1983).
B003) The thickness of the cloth measured by Jackson with a micrometer is variable from 318 to 391 micrometers (Rogers 2004).
B004) There appears to be more variation in the diameter of warp yarns than weft Rogers (1978).
B005) The TS [Shroud of Turin] weave is very tight (Raes 1974, Rogers 1978, Vial 1989).
B006) Although yarns and design of Raes sample look like the main part of the cloth, linen fibers from the Raes sample that was cut in 1973 are chemically different (from reflected spectroscopy and chemical analysis) (Adler 2000, Rogers 2002).
B007) Cotton fibers were found in the Raes samples and they were identified as Gossypium herbaceum, a common Middle East variety (Raes 1974, 1991).
B008) The sewing connecting the upper linen band of the TS [Shroud of Turin] is very particular and typical of very old manufacture (Flury Lemberg 2000, 2001).
B009) Reflectance spectra, chemical tests, laser-microprobe Raman spectra, pyrolysis mass spectrometry, and x-ray fluorescence all show that the image is not painted with any of the expected, historically-documented pigments (Schwalbe 1982; Morris 1980; Heller 1981, Mottern 1979).
B010) Chemical tests showed that there is no protein painting medium or protein-containing coating in image areas (Rogers 1978-1981; Heller 1981; Pellicori 1980, 1981; Gilbert 1980; Accetta 1980; Miller 1981).
B011) The image fibers do not show any sign of capillary flow of a colored or reactive liquid (Evans 1978; Pellicori 1981).
B012) Flakes of image color can be seen in other places where they fell off and stuck to the adhesive. The chemical properties of the coatings are the same as the image color on image fibers. All of the color is on the surfaces of the fibers (Rogers 2002; Heller 1981).
B013) There are no pigments on the body image in a sufficient quantity to explain the presence of an image (Pellicori 1981).