Confirmed observations: blood and body fluids:

B046) There is a first type of blood stain that corresponds to the blood exudated from clotted wounds and transferred to the cloth by being in contact with a wounded human body such as scourging and crown of thorns wounds or wrists wounds (Adler 1999).
B047) There is a second type of blood stain that correspond s to the blood that directly flowed on the TS [Shroud of Turin] such as feet wounds or side wound with blood separation in a dense and a serous portion (Brillante 2002, Schneider 2004).
B048) The UV photographs of single blood stains show a distinct serum clot retraction ring (Adler 1999).
B049) The chemical and physical parameters of the blood stains are different than mineral compositions proposed by artists (Adler 1999).
B050) The bloodstains observable on the back surface have been described as "imbibed flows" throughout the cloth (Ghiberti 2002).
B051) Blood traces on the back surface of the TS [Shroud of Turin] are smaller in size when compared with the corresponding traces on the frontal side, showing that blood was transposed onto the cloth touching the frontal side of the TS [Shroud of Turin] (Fanti 2003).
B052) The maintenance of the red bright color of the TS [Shroud of Turin] blood with time was observed, but the explanation of why the color is so red is not definitive (Brillante 2002).
B053) There are blood traces not consistent with scalp hair traces soaked with blood in correspondence to the image of the hair on the front side (Lavoie 1983, Fanti 1999).
B054) The wrist wound position can be referred to as the hand nail used for the crucifixion (Fanti and Marinelli 2003).
B055) The blood clots were transposed to the linen fabric during fibrinolysis (Brillante 1983; Lavoie 1983). The process of fibrinolysis could cause clots to liquefy sufficiently for the blood to transfer to the cloth as a serous- laden liquid rather than a moist jelly- like substance (Craig 2004).
B056) Some blood stains are comparable to transfers that would be expected if the arms were posed in non horizontal position (Lavoie 1983, 2003, Fanti 2005, Schwortz 2005).